I.E.S Ntra. Sra. de los Remedios de Ubrique

Miércoles, 20 Noviembre 2013 22:46

Text Type Definitions

SECTION 1: CORRESPONDENCE

A. Postcards

B. Memos

A memo is a short note normally used within the workplace.

C. Notes

A note is an informal, short piece of writing.

Organisation and presentation

• Present in a postcard format

• May include the recipient’s address and the date (not included in word count)

• Have a greeting (followed by an optional comma)

• The message should be brief and clear

• Have a suitable closing

Organisation and presentation

• Present in a memo format

• Include the names of the writer and receiver of the memo

• May include the date (not included in word count)

• There is no need for an address

• May include a short and clear subject title (not included in word count)

• Writers can use bullet points or numbered lists

• Have a suitable closing

Organisation and presentation

• Present in a note format

• Include a greeting and closing

• There is no need for the date or an address

• The message should be brief and clear

Language

• Use the relevant language items of ISE 0 as required e.g. Past simple tense, Going to

future

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

Language

• Use the relevant language items of ISE 0 as required e.g. Past simple tense, Going to

future

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is

Language

• Use the relevant language items of ISE 0 as required e.g. Past simple tense, Going to

future

• In real use there may be tolerance of spelling, grammar and punctuation deviations. In

the context of examination submissions however, accurate spelling, grammar and

punctuation is expected

Style and register

• Postcards are informal in nature

• Keep the sentences short and simple

Style and register

• Memos are normally more formal in nature as they are used within the workplace

• The style should be factual

• Keep the sentences short and simple

Style and register

• A note is informal in nature

• Keep the sentences short and simple

D. Informal letters

E. Formal letters

F. Emails

Organisation and presentation

• May (or may not) include the sender's address (not included in word count)

• The recipient's address is not necessary and considered inappropriate for this type of

letter

• Date optional (not included in word count) positioned above greeting

• Include an appropriate greeting e.g. ‘Dear John’ and closing e.g. ‘Best Wishes’

• The letter should be well-organised with appropriate use of paragraphs and cohesive

devices

• Sign off with first name only

Organisation and presentation

• Include sender and recipient's address, positioned at top of letter (not included in word

count)

• Include date, below addresses (not included in word count)

• Subject of letter (optional), positioned before

Include an appropriate greeting e.g. ‘Dear Mr Young’, ‘Dear Sir/Madam’ and closing e.g.

‘Yours faithfully’, ‘Yours sincerely’

• The letter should be well-organised into appropriate paragraphs e.g. an opening

paragraph which gives the reason for writing, the body of the letter and the final

concluding paragraph

• Sign off with signature and full name printed underneath

Organisation and presentation

• Present in an email format. Ideally, the email should be produced on an email package

(with a hardcopy printed for marking by the examiner)

• Customised prompts, such as the recipient’s email address and subject line may be

included and completed (not included in word count)

• Include a suitable greeting and closing

• The message should be brief and clear

• Layout is flexible, but the text should be well-organised with appropriate use of

paragraphs and cohesive devices

Language

• Include the relevant language items of the level as required

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

• Punctuation conventions to be observed and consistent, including address, greeting and

signing-off e.g. Dear Mary(,) i.e. comma optional but not Dear Mary!

• Capitalisation must be observed, as appropriate

Language

• Include the relevant language items of the level as required

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

• Punctuation conventions to be observed and consistent, including address, greeting and

signing-off e.g. Dear Mary, (comma optional) but not Dear Mary!

• Capitalisation must be observed, as appropriate

Language

• Include the relevant language items of the level as required

• In real use there is great tolerance of spelling, grammar and punctuation deviations. In

the context of examination submissions however, accurate spelling, grammar and

punctuation is expected

• Emoticons e.g. 'smilies' and conventional abbreviations e.g. ASAP are acceptable (not

included in word count)

• Text-messaging conventions are not

Style and register

• Informal in nature e.g. contractions, abbreviations, exclamation marks

• Style and register should be consistent

Style and register

• Formal and more impersonal in nature e.g. relative clauses, passives, signposting words

• Style and register should be consistent

Style and register

• Choose a style and register appropriate for the audience

• Style and register should be consistent

SECTION 2: FACTUAL WRITING

A. Instructions

Instructions give advice and information about how to do or use something

B. Directions

Directions tell the reader how to get from one place to another or how to find a particular

place.

C. Reports

A report is a factual description of an event or situation. It may be written for a superior

(e.g. teacher, manager), a peer group (e.g. colleagues) or a general audience (e.g. a

committee). A report will certainly contain some factual descriptions and explanations and

possibly some suggestions, justifications or recommendations. Due to the factual nature of

reports, they would not normally include the writer’s opinion.

Organisation and presentation

• Provide a title to help the reader determine what the instructions will help them do

e.g. ‘Instructions on how to ...’ (titles are not included in the word count)

• Think about the best order for the instructions

• Bulleted and numbered lists can be used. A numbered list should be used when the

order is important, a bulleted list when the order is not important

• The writer may include simple diagrams to support their instructions (however, only

written work is assessed)

Organisation and presentation

• Provide a title or a brief introduction to help the reader determine which place he/she

will find e.g. ‘Directions from the train station to my house’ (titles are not included in

the word count)

• Think about the best order for the directions

• A numbered list can be used

• The writer may include simple maps to support their directions (however, only written

work is assessed)

 

 

 

Organisation and presentation

• A clear sequence is expected

• Where appropriate include a heading (not included in word count)

• Begin with an introduction stating the purpose of the report

• The report should be clearly organised into paragraphs with section headings

• May use bullet points, tables, diagrams (only written work assessed) etc.

• There should be clear sign-posting, with unambiguous forward and backward

referencing

• Reports are usually the result of research and may contain percentages and statistics

• Where appropriate end with a conclusion, which would normally be a summary of the

points listed in the report

Language

• Use the relevant language items of ISE 0 as required e.g. Present simple tense, Going

to future

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

• Start each instruction with an imperative verb form that instructs the reader to do

something e.g. ‘Open the door’, ‘Add the butter’

Language

• Use the relevant language items of ISE 0 as required e.g. Present simple tense, Going

to future

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

• Start each direction with an imperative verb form e.g. ‘Turn left at the supermarket’,

‘Continue on this road for five kilometres’

Language

• Use the relevant language of the level as required

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

• Use wording and terminology appropriate to the intended audience

• There is a greater tolerance of technical language as the audience for a report is

likely to be restricted and to some extent informed

• Cohesive devices, discourse connectors, linking expressions can be used

Style and register

• Choose a style appropriate for the audience

• Keep the sentences short and simple

• Use a level of detail that is appropriate to the audience

Style and register

• Choose a style appropriate for the audience

• Keep the sentences short and simple

• Use a level of detail that is appropriate to the audience

Style and register

• Content by nature is formal and therefore attracts a more formal register

• Reports are more objective than articles (they should not be personal)

• The style should be factual

• The style and register should be consistent

D.Articles

An article is a piece of writing on a particular subject in a newspaper, magazine or journal.

Articles are written to arouse interest and win over an audience who are not necessarily

knowledgeable about the subject matter. It will usually include the writer’s opinion,

commentary or interpretation.

E. Reviews

A review calls on the candidate to react to an event, performance, work of art or literature,

film, drama, product and so on.

F. Summary

A summary is a short clear description that gives the main facts or ideas about something.

Organisation and presentation

• Include an interesting and informative title (not included in word count), which

introduces the subject and makes the reader want to read the article.

• Clearly introduce the subject that will be discussed in the article

The main text should be clearly divided into paragraphs with one topic discussed in

each paragraph

• Conclude the article with a brief summary

Organisation and presentation

• Include a title (not included in word count) to introduce the subject which has been

reviewed

• Clearly introduce the subject that will be discussed in the review

• The main text should be clearly divided into paragraphs. It may contain a descriptive

summary of the object under review, an evaluation of it (e.g. the weak and strong

points), a comparison with other examples in the genre etc.

• A final recommendation to the reader may be included

Organisation and presentation

• A summary should not contain repetition or irrelevant details from the original

document

• It should cover every important aspect of the original document

• The text should be well-organised with appropriate use of paragraphs and cohesive

devices

Language

• Use the relevant language of the level as required

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

• Cohesive devices, discourse connectors, linking expressions can be used

• Descriptive language, language of opinion and rhetorical questions can also be used

Language

• Use the relevant language of the level as required

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

• Cohesive devices, discourse connectors, linking expressions can be used

• Descriptive language and language of opinion can be used

Language

• Use the relevant language of the level as required

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

Style and register

• The style and register will depend on the medium where the article is being reported

and the intended audience

• The writer must choose the most appropriate style e.g. informal, witty, serious, etc.

Style and register

• The writer must choose the most appropriate style e.g. witty, serious, etc.

• Style and register should be consistent

Style and register

• The writer must choose the most appropriate style for the intended audience

• Style and register should be consistent

Section 3 - Creative and Descriptive Writing

A. Creative writing

By definition, creative writing requires originality of approach.

B. Descriptive writing

Descriptive writing requires the writer to describe something, especially in a detailed and

interesting way.

Organisation and presentation

• Layout is flexible and will vary according to the genre concerned

• Include a title where appropriate (not included in word count)

• The text should be well-organised with appropriate use of paragraphs and cohesive

Devices

Organisation and presentation

• Include a title where appropriate (not included in word count)

• The text should be well-organised with appropriate use of paragraphs and cohesive

devices

Language

• Use the relevant language of the level as required

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

• A variety of verb tense may be used

• Descriptive language should be used to add interest e.g. adjectives

Language

• Use the relevant language of the level as required

• Accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation is expected

• Descriptive language should be used to add interest e.g. adjectives and

Style and register

• Style and register will vary according to type of creative writing and the intended

reader

• Style and register should be consistent

Style and register

• Style and register will vary according to type of descriptive writing and the intended

reader

• Style and register should be consistent

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